The Moroccan energy sector: a permanent dependence


1 International Energy Agency (2019) “Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries – Morocco”. Available at:

2 Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE) (2020) ‘Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council: Accelerating the energy transition to establish Morocco in green growth’. Available at:

3 An elite that has internalized Western superiority and its contempt for indigenous cultures, and therefore its own culture.

4 Saul, S. (2002) ‘The electrification of Morocco at the time of the protectorate’, Overseas 89(334–335). Available at:

5 This representation at the time of the protectorate came from General Lyautey, the first resident general of the French protectorate, who decided to divide Morocco into two large parts, a central, rich, submissive “useful Morocco” and a dissident “peripheral Morocco”. , poor. useless Morocco”. For more information, see: (2001) ‘Political representations of the mountain in Morocco’, Journal of Alpine Geography 89(2): 141-144. Available at:

6 For more information on the influence and central position of Bank of Paris and the Netherlands (Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas) in the Moroccan economy, see Barbe, A. (2020) Public debt and imperialism in Morocco (1856-1956). Casablanca: The Crossroads. This position stems from the debt crisis that preceded and served as a pretext for the establishment of the protectorate.

seven Dahir n° 1-63-226 of August 05, 1963, published in the Official Bulletin of Morocco n° 2650 of Friday August 09, 1963, creates the National Office of Electricity (National Office of Electricity).

8 Mouline, M. (2012) ‘Conference – Morocco’s energy security: inventory and prospects’, Royal Institute for Strategic Studies (IRES), Beijing, 06 March 2012. Available at: /images/pdfs/Forums/Activites_externes/pdf_presentation_dg_ires_energie_vff-2.pdf

9 Following a dramatic decline in state resources due to the collapse of phosphate prices at the end of the 1970s, the cost of the Sahara war, a long and widespread drought, the rising costs of energy and the reduction of Moroccan emigration to Europe, the Moroccan state was unable to repay its debt and requested the rescheduling of its debt. International financial institutions, including the IMF and the World Bank, subsequently demanded the implementation of a structural adjustment plan in 1983. For details, see Akesbi, N. (1985) ‘IMF “Structural Adjustment” programs’, Africa Development / Africa and Development 10(1/2): 101–21. Available at:

ten Court of Audit (Court of Auditors) (2014) “Report on the delegated management of local public services”. Available at:

11 CSP is a solar energy technology. Electricity is produced from the heat recovered from the mirrors and exchanged with a liquid heat generator, which drives a turbo-alternator.

12 See the Moroccan Agency for Energy Efficiency (AMEE) website:

13 International Energy Agency (2020) ‘Data and Statistics – Morocco: Electricity 2019’. Accessed September 12, 2020. Available at:

14 Ministry of Economy and Finance – Department of Studies and Financial Forecasts (2014) ‘What regional positioning for Morocco in terms of energy competitiveness?’ Available at:

15 Sitri, Z. (2015) ‘Public-private partnerships in Morocco: legal support for an alternative mode of governance’, The Studies and Essays of the Center Jacques Berque 26. Available at:

16 These are energy sales contracts between the electricity producer and the public energy distributor. In the case of Morocco, it is the ONE which undertakes to buy its energy over a defined period. This type of contract is required by private producers and donors in order to secure their income throughout the duration of the contract and to protect themselves from possible price fluctuations and/or a drop in energy demand.

17 Information obtained directly from ONE officials during a visit to the Mohammedia thermal power plant in spring 2017.

18 Each time a thermal power station stops, restarting it is expensive, firstly because it takes a long time to heat up and requires a large amount of fuel, and secondly in terms of maintenance, because the life of the equipment is affected by stop-start cycles.

19 Bmourahib (2015) ‘Masen or the rise of Mustapha Bakkoury’, As isDecember 28, 2015. Available at:

20 Filali, K. (2021) ‘How Mustapha Bakkoury burned his wings at Masen’, OfficeMarch 30, 2021. Available at:

21 Maussion, E. (2021) ‘Morocco: what hides the disgrace of Mustapha Bakkoury?’, Young AfricaApril 02, 2021. Available at:

22 Kadiri, K. (2021) ‘In Morocco, solar strategy tariffs’, The world06 May 2021. Available at:

23 CESE (2020) Op. cit.

24 Masen (2019) ‘Masen Announces Tender Award for Noor Midelt I Solar Project’, press release, 21 May 2019. Available at: / files/documents_presse/Adjudication_Noor_Midelt_I_Vdeff.pdf

25 Iraqi, F. (2018) ‘Morocco: how Nareva made its mark in the energy sector’, Young AfricaJune 13, 2018. Available at:

26 See the Tarfaya wind farm on the official Nareva website here:

27 Moustakbal, J. (2016) “From the perspective of the dominant classes and elites in Morocco on global environmental issues”, CADTM. Available at:

28 Majdi, Y. (2014) “The price of electricity increased from August”, As isJuly 24, 2014. Available at:

29 CESE (2020) Op. cit.

30 Jeune Afrique (2014) “Morocco: Safi Energy raises $2.6 billion for its power plant”, 18 September 2014. Available at: raises-2-6-billion-dollars-for-its-power-plant/

31 Es-Siari, S. (2021) ‘Public debt ratio: is Morocco approaching 100%?’, EcoNewsJuly 19, 2021. Available at:

32 ATTAC/CADTM Morocco (2018) ‘Morocco: Auditing the debt to cancel it’, 21 September 2018. Available at:

33 The Joule effect refers to the loss of energy in carrying electricity from point A to point B. This loss increases as the distance between the two points increases.

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